Chandrayaan 3 Discovery | Oxygen on Moon! | Dhruv Rathee

Chandrayaan 3 Discovery

By using Chandrayaan 3 Discovery , India has done something that no country has done before. A touchdown at the Moon’s South Pole. The whole world celebrated this success. But did you know that during the Pragyan rover’s mission it found oxygen and sulfur on the moon? Few people have talked about the new information discovered during Chandrayaan 3’s experiments.

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But this discovery is really very interesting. Let’s find out and understand today. 23rd August 2023 was the day when Chandrayaan 3 successfully landed. The next day, on August 24, the Vikram lander took the Pragyan rover to a ramp to begin its mission. ISRO was regularly updating us through Twitter. On August 25th you can see the Pragyan rover moving away from the Vikram lander. From 24th August to 4th September, Vikram and Pragyan observed on the moon for about 12 days. They are then put into sleep mode. But hopefully they will wake up again. I will talk about this later, but first, let me understand these 12 days of observation.

It was on August 27 that the CHASTE instrument on the Vikram lander took its first reading. CHASTE stands for Lunar Surface Thermophysical Experiment. Its job was to measure the surface temperature of the moon. To understand the temperature variation at the South Pole of the Moon. Temperature was measured by a temperature probe attached to CHASTE. And CHASTE has 10 sensors This temperature probe can go 10 cm below the surface of the moon. In my opinion, the lessons that were taken there were very shocking.

Look at this graph. Here it is found that the temperature changes by 10 degrees Celsius by going 1 cm below the surface of the moon. The surface temperature was about 60 degrees Celsius. But by probing 8 cm into the soil, the temperature reached -10 degrees Celsius. Such a big temperature difference in just 8 cm. This graph shows the temperature variation from 0 to 80 mm depth. This is the first profile made for the Moon’s south pole. On the same day, ISRO released 2 images of the Pragyan rover when it was just 3 meters away from a large crater. In this picture, you can see that this hole in the moon was about 4 meters in diameter.

Our scientists did not want Pragyan to fall into this hole. Therefore, they changed the path of wisdom. Pragyan had to go back. And you can see some interesting photos of it where you can see its wheel tracks on the ground. If we talk about the intelligence payload, on August 28, the LIBS i.e. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy instrument confirmed the presence of sulfur in the south pole of the Moon. This was the first time it was confirmed on the ground at the Moon’s south pole. That is why it is called the first in-situ measurement. This LIBS instrument has been developed by the Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Bangalore in association with ISRO. Its job is to analyze the composition of the moon’s soil and rocks. And the way it works is also very interesting. It uses high-energy laser pulses. A laser is focused on the lunar soil, which is very hot.

This laser targets a small area of lunar soil. Due to this high temperature, the soil there is transformed into plasma. What is plasma? You must have read about it in school. 4 states of matter. Solid, liquid, gas and the next state of gas is plasma. When you put the gas through extremely high temperatures, it turns into plasma and the plasma emits light. The unique thing about this light emission is that different materials produce different wavelengths of light. And our instrument here measures the different wavelengths of light and based on that it can identify the elements present in the lunar soil. This is where the name comes from. Laser-induced breakdown. We used a laser to break up the rock or soil particles. We transformed them into plasma and then we measured the wavelengths emitted by them using spectroscopy.

For this reason it is called laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Here, I would like to say that I made a small mistake in the previous video of Chandrayaan 3. In the explanation I just gave, I told you that the RAMBHA tool would do this, but actually, it’s not RAMBHA but LIBS that has this. RAMBHA will also measure plasma, but not through laser-induced breakdown. We will talk about Rambha later in the video. Apologies for the mistake though. Now look at this graph. It shows the different wavelengths produced during spectroscopy. We already know which material produces the wavelength of light. So, the wavelengths that are produced in abundance here, we can use them to decide that these elements are in the lunar soil.

Also contains aluminium, Fe ie iron, Ti-titanium, sulphur, calcium and Cr-chromium. NASA project scientist Noah Petro said that the Russian and American Apollo and Luna missions detected the presence of sulfur on the moon in the 1970s. However, the invention of Chandrayaan was a tremendous success. Because these are in-situ findings. This is the first test on the ground. The technology used earlier was not that accurate. For example, in 2011, NASA found that the moon is rich in titanium. But they used their Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter for this. An orbiter is a spacecraft orbiting the Moon. An instrument landed on the moon

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